The shortcomings of the standard western medicine will be ever evident on treating FIV. We must move to integrated and progressive thinking if we are to treat this disease. We need information. We need to be aware of all available avenues that are reasonable, practical and achievable.

FIV is a infectious disease. In order for the virus to be infectious it must enter the cell, in the case of FIV is CXCR4, HIV is CCR5. It lasts a life time once it enters the cells in the body. There was no cure for it. After a variable latency period subsequent to being infected the patient's immunological bulwark against infectious disease with time normally crumbles. The body falls prey to assault by opportunistic organisms. Until recently the patient died from this assault on the body. But with modern science we now have hope of survival. This is true with humans and felines. But FIV treatment found premature ageing. Pro-inflammatory tissue environment may shorten life span. Lutimax may help treat this and protect brain. Malignancies result from infection and chronic inflammation. Rapid ageing of T cells could explain cancer. AIDS links 20 cancers. Inflammation causes damage early in the case of FIV and plays a role in FIV cancers and death. At certain age inflammasome switch occurs and can be blocked by parthenolide or Artemisinin. Curcumin curbs metastasis

Artemisinin with cream cheese may reduce some tumor. Cancer occurs earlier in FIV than normal cat

Antiretoviral therapy fails to restore health. There is a need for basic biology of aging with the biology of FIV infection.One method is provide appropriate multidisciplinary care to patient with FIV as they age. Herbal treatment does not seem to slow advanced FIV AIDS. Immune system is destroyed by using only antibiotics which veterinarians do. The denal of virus treatment leading to AIDS makes no sense. There is failure of our government on herbal medicine

Monocyte/macrophage lineage cells play an important role in the pathogensis of AIDS. Damage to monocyte/macrophage lineage cells likely cause opportunistic infection and cancer as protection of certain types of cancer are lost.

Allopathic medicine targets viral structure while herbs and supplements are more effective increasing immunity

FIV considered slow progressing disease and I try to give accurate picture of the disease. We don't know what causes loss of CD4+ cells yet we have a treatment for slowing or stopping loss. Over-activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cell inhibits anti-viral T cell responses. Targeting IFN-1 may help control persistant virus infections. Interferon causes AIDS. Infected Treg cells suppress IL-2 production by CD4+ contributes to chronic infections. Immu-25 seems to reverse damage.

FIV similar to autoimmune disease which you treat with Prednisolone or licorice root which is immunosuppressive and Immu-25 Immune booster + Eleuthero which stimulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Viral infection erodes feedback communication between the host's immune and nervous systems. Disruption can result in immunodeficiency. Overexpression of ACTH suppresses immune system. Immu-25 =axis =thymus normalizes blood counts for limited time. FIV seems to cause allergic rhinitis as blood shows high IgE. Treat with Aller-7. Treatment is to provide right amount of glucocorticoid. Using licorice, ashwagandha, holy basil, Amla C is mostly in Immu-25 and Bupleurum supports and stimulates the adrenal glands that were failing or receptor insensitive

Immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of FIV infection. FIV positive activates levels significactly higher than negative FIV. Residual immune activation contributes to ill health. Reducing the pool of FIV cells and thereby reducing the harmful immune activation and inflammation is central to pathogenesis. This in order to prevent non-AIDS events. HIV drug treatment doesn't even consider latent infected cells. It simply delays with reduced tissue damage. We have persistent reservoir activation and immune senescence giving reduction in immune surveillance. Activates reservoir resting FIV CD4 auranofin Resveratrol

FIV symptoms are caused by inflammatory response. Chemical agents manufactured by our immune system inflame our cells and tissues. Inflammatory medicators that the body makes itself-among them, cytokines, kinins, prostaglandins and interleukins, powerful little chemical messengers cause damage to tissues, set off pain in our nerve fibers and cause body to attack itself. So susceptibility to symptoms is not a sign of a weakened immune system, but quite the opposite. Strengthening your immune system could aggravate the symptoms by amplifying the very inflammatory agents that cause them. At first virus infects mainly macrophages which create inflammatory and later on necrosis killing the surrounding cells, especially brain and lungs. Damage is done to thymus. In FIV amount of TNF-a is highly exaggerated. AIDS is an inflammatory disease

IL-21+CD4+T cell response contribute to control of viral replication with control inflammatory pathways in the gut. Elite controller increased P21

In SIV the immune system does not attack the disease after infection does not progress to AIDS. The monkey lives with it. FIV immune system is destructive and must be inhibited as it is overactive. Most particles attacked are non-infectious and create an allergic condition (high IgE). Given the massive depletion of memory T cells in the gut first two weeks, microbial translocation from the gut was speculated to be in driving immune activation. In FIV plasmacytoid dendritic cells that produce IFN-a attack the disease instead of living with it. Prednisolone inhibits this but I prefer licorice root interfers with virus-cell binding and produces IFN-y(MAF). Glucocorticoid controls the regulation of IFN-a. IFN-a creates dividing stem cells. Glycyrrhizin inhibits FIV replication in dendritic cells and treats neuro-immunological disordrs

FIV gp120 is similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) which is adrenal regulator of glucocorticord which modulates the proliferation and servival of T cells. Gp120 is an superantigen to IgE. IgE allergy creates a TH2 profile. AIDS maybe a severe form of allergy which is why Prednisolone works. See Allergen-Like gp120 Molecules from HIV-1 Account for AIDS by Yechiel Becker

Immature dendritic cells can transfer virus to T cells, amplifying the infection. Activated PPARy (Resveratrol) and LXR inhibit this

HIV chimpanzees get AIDS. The strength of virus caused AIDS. Virus can mutate around CD8 response. One change the strength of FIV virsus with HIV drugs by creating mutations K65R+M184V 29% replication capacity mutation M184V 57% 3TC. Feline failed HIV drugs was undetectable on herbs

Prednisolone inhibits phospholipase-A2 which releases arachidonic acid inhibits FIV 70-90% and it is cheap

Macrophage major site of FIV replication. Virus transfer from macrophages causes death of CD4+ cells. Lack of macrophage activation leads to immmunodeficiency (See Nobuto Yamamoto DBP-MAF). Overexpression of ACTH or Vitamin D deficiency causes macrophage dysfunction.

Use Immu-25 to normalize blood counts. Immu-25 contains Amla C increases RBC, Guduchi enhances macrophage also Holy Basil activates B-galactosidase(Lactase Enzyme) of inflammation primed B lymphocytes yields MAF. Alkylglycerols from shark liver oil activates macrophages is used as a prodrug adds potency corrects loss of weight

Resveratrol inhibits macrophage FIV via Akt. In one case adding Viola yedoensis kill and Resveratrol activated resting cells turned FIV negative and inhibited macrophages. This maybe because of macrophages which as few as 500 HIV-exposed macrophages causes 1) complete depletion of several millions of autologous CD4+ T lymphocytes 2) sustained HIV viremia 3) spreading of HIV-1 DNA in lymphoid organs

Strengthening immune system without regard to the consequences may increase the replication of the virus. Problem of many enhancing herbs such as Echinacea which strength is TH2 not TH1. You have to treat a TH2 disease before treating TH1 FIV disease

Glycyrrhizinate Forte by Jarrow has been discontinued. Nutracidin maybe a replacement

Drugs use double-blind single-parameter controlled experiments are quite crude. Experiments fail to reveal many interactions. Western biomedical model is not good for formulas which must be used for HIV or FIV. Herb formula contains cyclotides Viola yedoensis which kill FIV

It is now possible to use drugs like Viread (PMPA), Lamivudine (3TC), and Abacavir (ABC). And has been used successfully with my help by two pet owners. One in Germany (www.poose.de) and one in United States

There is interferon-alfa and AZT as treatment for FIV. AZT creates anemia and interferon-alfa is too weak for dealing with FIV. Is no conventional treatment for FIV presently. There is a FIV vaccine. Antibodies created interfer with FIV identify tests. LTCI has poor FIV inhibition

Full blown Feline AIDS have expectancy six months to a year. From studies takes 6 years for inital infection to advance to AIDS without treatment. Some veterinarians have used steroids (Prednisolone) to reduce inflammation and wasting. These the replication of FIV virus

I had three cats: one cat lasted two months after it was discovered with AIDS and had to be put to sleep after losing half its weight. One cat is FIV negative. It is my cat Blackie that was 15 years old when I started writing this essay that is infected with FIV that I treated. FIV disease is a multifactorial process controlled by the complicated interplay of stimulatory and inhibitory factors concentrated in the lymphoid tissue, the centers of immune activity in the body

Drug Targets presently attack HIV virus during it cycle

1 HIV binding and cell entry point

2 Reverse Transcription

3 Regulatory Proteins

4 HIV translation and protein assembly

5 Budding from cell

New combo for FIV is Viread, 3TC, and ABC. Published by German lab

I use the following powder formula to treat my cat Blackie:

Maitake 600 mg..protects T-cells?

Shiitake 100mg 3.2% ks-2..Increase white blood cells

Garlic powder teaspoon..antibiotic

Grape Seed Tru-opc 75mg..Increase vitamin c cell level

Licorice Root 396mg ..Creates interferon

St John's Wort (Hypericin 3%) Blocks entry of FIV into cells

Alpha Lipoc Acid 50mg..Enhances vitamin c, e

NAC..Suppress TNF (wasting)

Green Tea 400mg.FIV reverse transcriptase

L-Glutamine.muscle builder

L-Carnitine 250mg.for wasting

Olive Leaf 250mg 6% Oleuropein.Heart, virus inhibition

Vitamin C 500mg.Nutrient

HMB 250mg Potassium Phosphate 50mg Muscle builder (wasting)

Sardines in tomato sauce..Contains Nucleic Acid (RNA, DNA) for healthier cells. This is included in diet

Formula contains two capsules each except for vitamin C includes four tablets. Licorice root I now use is by Jarrow. Garlic may instigate anemia used long-term

Break formula up giving once in early morning and again in late evening. I give Blackie after supper two capsules of Shiitake, 1/2 capsule of Green tea, one tablet of Grape Seed

Formula I place in a teaspoon about half full and use my thumb and second finger in placing a pinch of formula in place. At this point rub it against the mouth. I find this to be the easiest method on myself and the cat

I been treating my cat when I started writing this essay for about six months. The last month fully on the complete formula.

Most Protease inhibitors for HIV will not work for cats but TL-3 or Tipanavir will. A side effect most common is diarrhea. The usual herbs for dealing with diarrhea are Ginger, Black Walnut and Acidophilus

PMPA is another drug that may be used on cats. Used experimentally with good results, 100 times less toxic than AZT

Colostrum may replace partly the immune system that was destroyed. Kittens just born do not have developed immune systems. The fluid secreted from the breast of Mother is known as colostrum contains growth factors, hormones, enzymes, and other substances that are immune-protective

Vital Pet has Procaine HCI 50mg, is anticortisol, inhibits MAO. Procaine breaks down into PABA and DEAE. PABA enhances the hormone cortisol. Drug is local anesthetic to block the conduction of nerve impulses. Tried one tablet with Shiitake, Green tea, Grape seed once a day

Giving my cat Blackie this supplement may slow the progression of FIV infection. Europe supplement is called "Gerovital H3"

Has anti-aging process claim

VitalPet needs further research. VitalPet increased red blood cells but created allergy.

Prednisolone 2mg inhibited FIV. Alfred J. Plechner in his book "Pets at Risk" uses about 1.5mg of Prednisolone to treat FIV. Adding Pumpkin seed or colostrum will increase WBC cell counts

Herbs are not non-toxic. Medicinal herbs contain powerful, pharmacologically active compounds. They are drugs and should be approached with caution

I have written this essay as a memorial to my cat Blackie. On May 23, 1998 my cat Blackie was killed by a coyote at night in North Dallas where I lived. Before this happened I modified his treatment to add one capsule of Olive Leaf in the morning another in evening in my formula. I did this after reading an article on Naltrexone and Olive Leaf treatment. I treated Blackie for nine months. He lived to be fifteen and a half years old

For another FIV treatment web see: www.fivtherapy.com There is also yahoo group fiv-healthscience

FIV infects the epithelial cells and the thymus gland gradually disintegrates. Folicular dendritic cells are in close contact with viral particles and this seems to destroy them. The loss of these cells may be disastrous as they play important roles in the immune system. A different type of dendritic cell involved in making T cells respond to infection also seems to suffer early damage. FIV is destroying other parts of the immune system long before the number of T cells starts to tumble

Dendritic cells shown to strongly enhance FIV replication in T cells and thymic dendritic cells were found to support FIV replication. It is possible that dendritic differentiation and infection, in the immature compartment, also contributes to the inflammatory response. Such an inflammatory response, by favoring virus spreading, might lead to direct destruction of these cells and disruption of the cortical microenvironment (thymus cortex) and may contribute to an irreversible adverse effect on T-cell regeneration

Treatment strategy is to put FIV virus into a state of permanent latency. The other strategy is to prevent the virus entry into the cell.

FIV is weaker and less complex than HIV. FIV orf2 has been postulated to encode a transcriptional transactivator. Transactivation of the FIV LTR by FIV proviruses has been shown to be weak and varied depending on the LTR, provirus, and cell type tested. Regulatory elements, including AP4, AP1, SP1, C/EBP, NF1 and ATF, are present in the FIV LTR also "NF-kB, TATA, Orf2 reported to exhibit functions similar to tat and vpr

The targeting by FIV of OX40(CD134) suggests that a selective advantage is acquired. This advantage might involve regulation of the immune response. CD134 is a T cell activation antigen and costimulatory molecule. CD134 is specifically up-regulated on CD4+ T cells that have been activated by treatment with IL-2. Infection is CXCR4-dependent, analogous to infection with X4 strains of HIV. Green tea phytosome inhibits CXCR4

FIV infection of the stroma alters normal hematopoietic function. By week 13 stromal cells to sustain the growth of uninfected bone marrow cells was decreased by 35-46% when compared to the suppernatant from uninfected stromal cells. Bone marrow suppression, reduced thymic output, and the loss of naive T cells produce reduced lymphoid regenerative capacity

Loss of stroma produces diminished production of a factor which stimulates hematopoiesis or increased production of a factor which inhibits hematopoiesis. Inhibitory cytokines TNF-a and IL-4 or stimulating IL-3, G-CSF, and c-kit ligand. In macrophages TGF-b suppressed

The lymph node in pathogenesis we know that lymph nodes provide to support complex interactions among various cell types. CD4 cell depletion can be caused by lymph node fibrosis. HAART fails increase periphere CD4 counts in 25% of patients.

Functional defects and depletion of dendritic cells are common in FIV-infected, contributing to the progressive immunodeficiency

FIV infection exhibit deficits in bacterial and fungal clearance, and possibly depressed innate immunity. Using G-CSF may restore response. G-CSF also moves stem cells to the blood which may further regenerate and correct damage done to other areas. GM-CSF to simulate bone marrow use oleic and linoleic acid. AMD3100 (Mozobil, plerixofor)is now used instead of G-CSF

Some vets are making use of Prednisolone which slow FIV progression. This treatment is for the overactivation of T-cells and CCL2 (MCP-1) a proinflammatory chemokine induced in FIV infection. Some scientests believe that it is inflammation rather than any unique activity of HIV/FIV that makes it harmful. Text books contain using low dose interferon-alfa and AZT. Low dose Alferon N is a newer version of interferon-a gives better results. Why Viread notlisted? In Europe they do not recommand using AZT

FIV dysregulation manifests both chronic immune suppression and chronic immune activation

On overactivation of T-cells: The T cell activation matters because of activation-induced cell death (AICD). A normal immune reaction starts with T cell proliferation. Once an invader is cleared, the reaction is self-limited by AICD - the suicide of most of the recently proliferating T cells. During FIV infection, however, the virus is not cleared and still remains visible to the immune system. Repeated cycles of activation lead to excessive proliferation and excessive AICD. The vast turnover of T cells eventually exhausts the immune system. But for SIV strains that down-regulated CD3, there was no activation and thus little cell death. The long-term goal will be to reduce AICD, by reducing the activation step

Inflammation: Anti-inflammatory therapy might reduce the damage to the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are set up in a certain order to work correctly, and FIV can damage them and make them not work as well. Changes FIV causes in lymph nodes affect how well FIV medication works. Fibrosis in the gut may significantly affect the depletion of CD4+ T cells during FIV infection and their replenishment on initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Chronic inflammation contributes to failure of naive T cell homestasis

Inflammation causes oxidative stress in turn causes free radical especially reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are produced in disease states. This causes reduced glutathione in FIV disease. Low glutathione-s-transferase a detoxification enzyme maybe the one of causes of lymphoma by FIV

Blood contribute between 0.3% and 0.5% to total pool lymphocytes. Proportion of lymphocytes in the gut is estimated to be 15%. Each gram of spleen carried at least 10 fold more CD4 cells than each gram of gut. Most the gut contains number of CD4+ T cells equal to that of the spleen

Thymus participates establishment and maintenance of the antiviral immune response. The protection of the thymic compartment is of paramount importance. There is a role of the thymus in maintaining perpheral T-cell homeostasis

Chronic activation of the immune system or the unrestricted viral replication interferes with the regenerative capacity of the thymus or bone marrow precursors. There is almost complete loss of thymocytes in AIDS

In the new Imulan( LTCIM) T-cell Immunomodulator drug for FIV (restrictive license) is an experimental drug. This drug existed 12 years ago under another name. A 45% reduction of viral load is not enough to control FIV. FIV can't express protective Th1 immune response when challenged with a secondary intracellur pathogen

Company increased cost $50 dose from $15. Oral Thymic Protein A Longevity (oral version of LTCIM) human study showed little change. Bring effector and suppresser in balance to prevent immune restoration disease. LTCIM is used for FIV and FeLV. Lactoferrin added may help is FIV inhibitor, dampens overactivation and cost $20. LTCIM anecdote results are mixed. In one example cat had hemobartonella which caused T-cells decrease. Using LTCIM with interferon may work better than alone. Combination of Prednisolone, LTCIM, Omega Interferon, Elspar, chemo worked for FIV, FeLV lymphoma cat. Short-term anorexia maybe a side effect of LTCIM. Good idea to taper like glucocorticoids when stopping use. Noted Chitosan NanoTek inhibits FCV. Bioavailable Parthenolide may correct ageing thymus

Drug is really a hormone replacement. GH does a increase thymus mass but has some bad side effects IGF-1 is better. I use melatonin instead. Acetyl-L-Carnitine may also help. (Thymic dyfunction is reversible with effective anti-retroviral therapy). Arginine can also increase mass. Lysine-arginine can increase release of Thymulin to normal levels and number of perpheral T cell subsets. Note high dose Vitamin B3 (nicotinamide) boosts neutrophil counts.

Non-progressor maintain functioning thymus. Excess IFN-a damages thymus. Thymic output of naive T cells has emerged as a clear correlate of a good immunological response to treatment. Conversely, slow naive T cell repletion is associated with poor CD4 T cell count increases and a persistently elevated risk of clinical illness

Key factor in controlling T-cells researchers hypothesized a "compensatory feed back loop." HIV reduces the number of T-cells; dendritic-like cells in peripheral lymph nodes sense the loss and cause the production of IL-7 then stimulates the thymus and other immune tissues to produce T-cells in an attempt to restore T- cells to their proper levels. IL-7 can expand the entire repertoire of T-cells. IL-7 has the potential to rebuild the entire T-cell compartment and fully restore its ability to fight disease.

IL-7 can also increase the replication of the HIV virus and, by stimulating the usually dormant thymus, may open it up to infection. In the setting of HIV disease, IL-7 might be safely given to rebuild damaged immune systems if side effects of viral replication is controlled by antiviral therapies. A IL-7 drug is in development

Bone marrow microenvironment, the cytokine mileu, and the number and the function of primitive hematopoietic elements in FIV disease; each of these has supportive evidence suggesting it as a mechanism in suppressing normal cell production. Alterations in stem cell number and function have been documented. In bone marrow there is the susceptiblity of the stromal layer to FIV infection which results in diminished hematopoietic output. The use of Oleic and linoleic acid may increase stem cell replication. I used pumpkin seed. Vitablue (NaturaCell) may increase stem cells in CNS

Colostrum will increase lymph counts but may only be temporary shift in wbc. Increase must be studied long-term see if it is repairing the damage caused by the virus. In the case of lactoferrin it is the inhibition that causes the increase in counts as a shift takes place. As lymphs it moves from one part of body to the blood. I have a theory that the increase we see is simply a return to a count that was going down for a few years. My cat Tiger counts were restored using Immu-25 adaptogenic herbs that recharge the adrenal glands

Pet Dophilus by Jarrow I found a treatment for intestinal health and wasting. It contains whey protein which increases IG's, Lacterferrin which inhibits virus entry. two proteins that inhibit intergase, probiotics and Metabolin which remainds me of Russian Choice immune supplement that has cell wall fragments that initiate the process for stimulating the body's natural immune response. It is likely to increase lymph counts and I found that it did in one cat that I used pet dophilus. Whey protein is somewhat similar to colostrum. Whey deals with glutathione deficiency, niacinamide with tryptophan deficiency that normally occurs with FIV

Another Jarrow supplement is Glycyrrhizinate Forte which is licorice root and most likely the most effective supplement for inhibiting the FIV virus. Rather than using Prednisolone I use this along with Bupleurum and Acetyl L-carnitine as likely to have less side effects. And I have used this on the two FIV cats I have carefully studies that I owned. Licorice root - Japanese have found good results against HIV

In FIV during chronic viral infections Treg cells are beneficial to the host by maintaining a balance between efficient viral defense and inflammation, while preventing the induction of autoimmunedisorders. Similar to other pathogens, certain viruses, like FIV, have developed mechanisms that directly affect Treg cell function, resulting in reduced antiviral response and increased viral persistence. In FIV Treg are the main CD4+ cells that are attacked and lost. In early attack the immune system still functions but as time goes on the system loses control. Treg are required to remove autoantibodies and their loss creates autoimmune disease where T-cells attack organs. Immune system with fewer command-and-control cells known as regulatory T cells make the system more likely to overreact or run wild. Which is why you see more cancer in advanced FIV than you would normally

Treatment in FIV you endup with a shorten life with premature aging and susceptibility to inflammation-induced disease such as diabetes or cancer. Antiretroviral therapy does not fully restore the health of the immune system. Blood test do not show tissue damage nor inflammation. Laboratory tests are outdated. I have no way of knowing dysregulation or dendritic cell counts. Whether ELISPOT is available for clinical work and CMI test is not normally done. The only thing availabile for clinical work is CD4+ count. When you get a CD4+ T-cell count it is not broken down between effector and suppressor cells, so you do not know the true condition of the immune system. It is likely that the FIV disease is an autoimmune disease when an imbalance in suppressor and effector takes place

Central memory CD4+ T cell responses in chronic FIV infection are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. This is the same with HIV. Memory T cells are functionally and phenotypically divided into central memory and effector memory T cells. TEM have immediate effector functions, and appear to be short-lived. TCM are long-lived, quiescent and multipotent

Long-term maintenance of TCM is dependent on their capacity to trigger cell survival pathways and to shutdown/neutralize pro-apoptotic molecules. Failure to proficiently generate and maintain TCM might lead to inefficient immune response to chronic infectious disease such as FIV infection

IL-2 may have some positive affect as this creates phosphorylated FOXO3a where unplosphorylated FOXO3a initiates transcription of pro-apoptotic genes. Adding herbs that produce IL-2 to FIV inhibitors will maintain TCM

FIV infection impairs the IL-17 axis, an arm of the mucosal immune response preventing systemic microbial dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract. FIV-infected develop a life-threatening bacteremia. Th17 cells are specific for bacterial and fungal antigens, but not common viral antigens they are preferentially depleted within the first weeks of infection and their frequency is not restored to normal level over time. Because Th17 cells play a central role in innate and adaptive immune response to extracellular bacteria, these data provide a rational explanation for the chronic enteropathy (disease of the intestine) in FIV infection. Th17 acts to preserve the integrity of the mucosal barrier thus enhancing host defenses against microbial agents, maintenance of robust Th17 function in mucosal tissue may decrease systemic inflammation and disease progression by preventing the immune activation that would otherwise occur after microbial translocation and spread. The loss of Th17 shows up as immune overactivation in FIV creates dysregulation of Th17/Treg balance. Compromised thymic function maybe also involved in this problem. Decreased naive T cell numbers is associated with microbial translocation

In healthy immune system inflammation-suppressing regulatory T cells and inflammation-stimulating T helper 17 cells stay in a healthy balance. Too many regulatory T (Treg) cells may cause a vulnerability to tumors or infection, and too much T helper 17 (Th17), a tendendy toward autoimmunity

Note suppressor CD8+ T cells contribute to immune dysfunction in HIV-1

Loss of Th17 & B cells first 17 days with extensive germinal center loss cause problems. Memory B-cell abnormalities persist with effective antiretroviral therapy. FIV gradually depletes the numbers of healthy, functional B cells. Individuals who had high levels of FIV in their blood had lots of B cells, failed to produce high-quality antibodies. It seems T and B lymphocytes use a common transcriptional program during memory development that is disrupted in chronic viral infection

Herb Continuation section has info on immune restoration. FIV treatment in summary section

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